Through the preceding century or so of Palaiologan marriages to other imperial families, his ancestry could be traced back to the three most recent dynasties that had ruled the empire before the Fourth Crusade (Doukas, Komnenos and Angelos). Sophia and Ivan had several children and numerous descendants. When Yolande's brother, John I of Montferrat, died without children in 1305, Montferrat legitimately passed to Yolande and her children. John VII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs Z' Palaiologos; 1370 – 22 September 1408) was Byzantine Emperor for five months in 1390. At the Council of Florence in 1439, Emperor John VIII reaffirmed the Union in the light of imminent Turkish attacks on what little remained of his empire. Over the course of the 12th century, the Palaiologoi were mostly part of the military aristocracy, not recorded as occupying any administrative political offices, and they frequently intermarried with the then ruling Komnenos family, increasing their prestige. They had at least six children -- four sons and at least two daughters. John V Palaiologos (or Palaeologus) (Greek: Ίωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs V Palaiologos) (18 June 1332 – 16 February 1391) was a Byzantine emperor, who succeeded his father in 1341, at age nine. Nikephoros supported the revolt of Nikephoros III Botaneiates against Michael VII, but his son, George Palaiologos, married Anna Doukaina and thus supported the Doukas family and later Alexios I Komnenos, Anna's brother-in-law, against Botaneiates. Many of his subjects had chastized him as a traitor and heretic while he lived and he, like many of his predecessors before him, died in communion with the Church of Rome. The origins of the family are unclear. Nobles that could escape mostly did, many fleeing to the Morea where they had estates. Just a few days after Theodore's death, Michael led a coup against the bureaucrat George Mouzalon,[9] who had been appointed regent by Theodore II. Thomas retained hope that the Papacy might yet call for a crusade to restore the Byzantine Empire whereas Demetrios, probably the more realistic of the two, had more or less given up hope of Christian aid from the West and believed it to be best to placate the Turks. (en) 25بك المحتوى هنا ينقصه الاستشهاد بمصادر. [55], Lazar Branković's third daughter, Jerina, married Gjon Kastrioti II, the son of Albanian national hero Skanderbeg. [108] Theodore was one of the key players in the Greek community in Venice, having helped the Greek refugees there achieve permission to construct the San Giorgio dei Greci church in the first place, and his family was highly regarded by the locals. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. [100][101], Ferdinand died in 1670 and was survived only by his son, Theodore. [94], In 1578, the members of the family living in Pesaro were embroiled in a scandal as brothers Leonidas and Scipione Paleologus, and their nephew Theodore, were arrested for attempted murder. In 1382, the Kantakouzenoi were also driven out of the Morea (the modern-day Peloponnese) and John V's son Theodore was placed to govern it as the semi-independent Despot of the Morea, an important victory as the region was quickly becoming the most important Byzantine province. His triumph in the six-year civil war is the subject of the poem "John Kantakouzenos Triumphs" by the modern Greek poet Constantine Cavafy. Though most of these documents do not appear questionable in of themselves, they have not been authenticated and there are several problems with the overall reconstruction of events and descent. John had no imperial ambitions of his own, and refused to be crowned co-emperor despite being offered the opportunity by Andronikos III Palaiologos several times during the reign of latter. [46] Thus, the male line of the imperial branch of the House of Palaiologos probably went extinct at some point in the early 16th century. There is a document from Casalsottano, dated 24 June 1441, which bears the signature of "Ruggerio Greco", "Greco" interpreted by proponents of the Mastrogiovanni descent as a nickname due to his Greek origin rather than a surname. [28] Demetrios lived in the Ottoman Empire for the rest of his life, dying in 1470. [92] It would be difficult to explain why Allatius, a respected scholar, would simply make up a member of an ancient dynasty. [118] The "Rogerio Greco" mentioned as a judge in 1441 cannot be identified with the supposed progenitor of the Paleologo Mastrogiovanni line since it would have been impossible for him to have been a judge at only 11 years old. As such, many of them escaped into Western Europe either before or after the Morea fell in 1460. [80] In addition to the non-imperial Palaiologoi that were descendants of older collateral lines, Byzantine genealogy is also made complicated by the fact that it was common in Byzantium to adopt the family name of your spouse or mother, if that was more prestigious. [25] The brothers were divided in their policies. Constantine XI died fighting in its defense. Not only were the means the family had used to gain the throne grim,[11] but their religious policy alienated many within the empire. [114], Supposedly, Rogerio's descendants would then have remained in Casalsottano until 1571, when Giovanni Paleologo was given the fief of Perito and Ostigliano in Salerno. [35] Andreas and Manuel soon faced financial problems, with the pension once provided to their father having been split between the two of them and constantly cut back by the Papacy. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. [121], Numerous people with the last name Palaiologos, living on the island of Syros in Greece, have historically claimed descent from a supposed son of Andronikos Palaiologos, one of Emperor Manuel II's sons and Despot of Thessaloniki. [127] Despite Michael VIII's efforts, the union was disrupted in 1281, after just seven years, when he was excommunicated by Pope Martin IV. In the decades after 1453, Ottoman tax registers show a consortium of noble Greeks co-operating to bid for the lucrative tax farming district including Constantinople and the ports of western Anatolia. John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs V Palaiologos), (1332 – February 16, 1391) was the son of Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos and Anna of Savoy.His maternal grandparents were Count Amadeus V of Savoy and his second wife Maria of Brabant. The letter supposedly requested that if that was the case, the head of the family should be provided with the means of returning to Greece, with the trip paid for by the Greek government. Notable ancestors includeCharlemagne (747-814), Alfred the Great (849-899), William I of England (1027-1087), Hugh Capet (c940-996). John V was initially victorious, imprisoning and disinheriting Andronikos IV and appointing a younger son, Manuel II Palaiologos, as his successor instead. [20] In an effort to extort money from Mehmed, Constantine implicitly threatened to release Orhan Çelebi, Mehmed's cousin and the only other known living member of the Ottoman dynasty (and as such a potential rival to Mehed), who was held prisoner in Constantinople. While he was Emperor, there is evidence showing he used the name Andronikos, after his father, although when he was regent during his Basilikon of John V Palaiologos (1341-1391) Basilikon of John VI Kantakouzenos (1347-1354) Assarion of John V Palaiologos and Anna of Savoy (1341-1391) Stavraton of Andronikos IV Palaiologos (1376-1379) Half-stavraton of John VII Palaiologos (1390) Half-stavraton of Manuel II Palaiologos (1391-1425) [32] Thomas died on 12 May 1465 and shortly thereafter Zoe, Andreas and Manuel arrived in Rome. [69], Theodore's descendants, the Palaeologus-Montferrat family, ruled at Montferrat until the 16th century, though they were sometimes given Greek names, such as Theodore and Sophia,[70] most of the Palaiologan Marquises of Montferrat paid little attention to affairs in the eastern Mediterranean. Omissions? [9], On 25 July 1261, Nicene forces under general Alexios Strategopoulos recaptured Constantinople from the Latin Empire, restoring the city to Byzantine rule after almost sixty years in foreign hands. Étude généalogique et prosopographique", "SERRA DI CASSANO, Giuseppe in "Dizionario Biografico, Spain (Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands),, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 December 2020, at 19:51. [15] Even during the final decades of the Byzantine Empire, the Palaiologoi often found it difficult to cooperate with each other. George served as the doux of Dyrrhachium in the reign of Alexios I and was accorded the title of kouropalates. [23], In January 1459, rivalry between the brothers broke out into civil war as Thomas, with the aid of some of the Albanian lords in the Morea, seized a series of fortresses held by Demetrios. The Paleologu also live in Malta and France, one of the most famous members of the family being the French diplomat Maurice Paléologue, who in his lifetime repeatedly asserted his imperial descent. Over a century had passed since Constantinople, a city Demetri had never seen, had fallen and yet he retained lingering dreams of the city. From 1328 to 1341 Cantacuzenus directed both domestic and foreign policy for the Emperor. [14] Ultimately, the siege was resolved peacefully by Manuel through signing a peace treaty with Bayezid's son and successor, Mehmed I, in 1403, which among other things returned the city of Thessaloniki, captured by the Ottomans in 1387, to Byzantine rule. [38][39] According to Russian sources, he might also have had a daughter, Maria Palaiologina, who married a Russian prince. In 1478, Theodore travelled to Venice with his father, Paul, and became a stratiote. When Constantinople fell to the Fourth Crusade in 1204, the Palaiologoi fled to the Empire of Nicaea, a Byzantine successor state ruled by the Laskaris family, where they continued to play an active role and occupied many offices of high rank. Their rule of the empire continued until 1453, when Ottoman sultan Mehmed the Conqueror conquered Constantinople and the final Palaiologan emperor, Constantine XI Palaiologos, died in the city's defense. [38] The family name Palaiologos had been relatively widespread in the Byzantine Empire, and the family had been quite extensive before a branch of it acceded to the imperial throne. John VI Cantacuzenus, (born 1292—died June 15, 1383, Mistra, Byzantine Empire), statesman, Byzantine emperor, and historian whose dispute with John V Palaeologus over the imperial throne induced him to appeal for help to the Turks, aiding them in their conquest of the Byzantine Empire. For 57 years, Constantinople had been under Catholic rule through the Latin Empire and now the easterners had once more asserted their right not only to the position of Roman emperor but also to a church independent of the one centered in Rome. She predeceased her father, dying in 1469. Though Constantine XI died in communion with Rome (and thus as a "heretic"), his death in battle against the Ottomans, defending Constantinople, made the Greeks and the Orthodox church remember him as a hero, redeeming popular opinion of the dynasty as a whole. … Their rule as Emperors and Autocrats of the Romans lasted almost two hundred years, from 1259 to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. Variant of DOC 5.1:184, table 24, siglon no. According to the genealogies, Rogerio would have been born about 1430 and was supposedly sent to Alfonso the Magnanimous of Aragon and Naples as a hostage to guarantee some treaty with the Byzantines. Supposedly, he is to have stayed in Casalsottano, a hamlet of the Italian comune San Mauro Cilento, in a 15th-century building commonly referred to as the Palazzo ("the palace"). [1] Michael seized the guardianship of the child emperor and was invested with the titles of megas doux and despotes. None of their own contemporaries appear to have doubted their imperial descent. He succeeded his father as Byzantine Emperor in 1341, at age nine. He was denied the traditional funeral pomps of an Orthodox Emperor. Although Andronikos III was ultimately victorious and Andronikos II was deposed, the empire was damaged economically and for the first time, foreign states such as Bulgaria and Serbia had appeared as significant regulating factors in imperial dynastic disputes (joining opposite sides of the civil war). By 1354 Cantacuzenus was anxious to continue his rule and crowned his son, Matthew, co-emperor. [79], In addition to the John Palaiologos of the Pesaro genealogy, some Italian genealogies from the 17th century onwards ascribe further sons to Thomas Palaiologos, notably a supposed older son by the name Rogerio or Ruggerio. Murad defeated Mustafa's rebellion and besieged Constantinople in 1422, though the Byzantines successfully repulsed him. That a Byzantine prince, born in the purple, would be sent to live among, and rule over, Latin barbarians,[64] was bad enough but there were also fears that he and his descendants might become 'Latinized'[65] and that the Italians, as a result of the Montferrat inheritance, could launch an invasion in the future in hopes of placing a Catholic Palaiologos on the Byzantine throne. As the Ottoman Empire grew to encompass more and more Byzantine territory, emperors such as John V and Manuel II labored intensely to retore the union, much to the dismay of their subjects. John VIII Palaiologos was the eldest son of Manuel II Palaiologos and Helena Dragaš, the daughter of the Serbian prince Constantine Dragaš.He was associated as co-emperor with his father before 1416 and became sole emperor in 1425. 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