The word Apocrypha comes from the Greek word, meaning “hidden” or “concealed”. In the bible, this is the name of many characters, including the husband of Huldah the prophetess. Prov 8:22-31 ) Wisdom, whom he identifies with the Law, and provides practical precepts for everyday living. The biblical apocrypha (from the Ancient Greek: ἀπόκρυφος, romanized: apókruphos, lit. The best commentary is that by O. F. Fritsche and C. L. W. Grimm, Kurzgef. In the last passage Bishop Lightfoot thought we have in the word apokruphoi (treasures of Christ hidden) an allusion to the vaunted esoteric knowledge of the false teachers, as if Paul meant to say that it is in Christ alone we have true wisdom and knowledge and not in the secret books of these teachers. of Bibliography Information This was in part because the Apocrypha contained material which supported certain Catholic doctrines, such as purgatory, praying for the dead, and the The present connotation of the term did not get fixed until the Protestant Reformation had set in, limiting the Biblical canon to its present dimensions among Protestant churches. Matt 7:12 ). The New Testament Apocrypha consists of a very extensive literature, which bears distinct evidences of its non-apostolic origin, and is utterly unworthy of regard. Baruch; IX. they were of an esoteric character. 2 Esdras. The Gospel of Nicodemus (also called the Acts of Pilate), provides a detailed account of Jesus' trial and descent into hell. These books are generally modeled after the literary forms found in the New Testament: there are apocryphal gospels, acts, letters, and revelations. When among the Jews there arose a literature of oral tradition it was natural to apply to this last the Greek notion of esoteric, especially as this class of literature was more highly esteemed in many Jewish circles than the Old Testament Scriptures themselves. Several of these writings are tied closely to Old Testament books. There are several modern translations, far the best being that in German edited by E. Kautzsch, containing Introductions, general and special, and valuable notes by the best German scholars. Also spelled Chilkiya. Apocrypha is a loanword borrowed from Latin, from Greek Apokrupha, neuter pl. It is as follows: (1) the canonical books of both Testaments; (2) writings of the Fathers approved by the church; (3) apocryphal books rejected by the church. In Hellenistic Greek as represented by the Septuagint and the New Testament there is no essential departure from classical usage. Insights on Judaism: The Apocrypha, Lions, Printers and the Parsha Q. "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". Mem. The word Apocrypha is a specific term used to refer to those particular books that are considered 'Scripture' by the Roman Catholic Church while the Protestants dispute that. The word Apocrypha, as usually understood, denotes the collection of religious writings which the Septuagint and Vulgate (with trivial differences) contain in addition to the writings constituting the Jewish and Protestant canon. So that the conception of esoteric literature existed among the Jews in the 1st century of our era, and probably still earlier. For detailed information see under the several books. having the secondary sense acquired by "apocrypha"? The stories, themes, and language of these books (especially Judith, Tobit, Susanna, the Maccabees, Ecclesiasticus, and the Wisdom of Solomon) have been utilized by literary figures such as Shakespeare, Milton, and Longfellow, composers such as Charles Wesley, Handel, and Rubinstein, and artists such as Michaelangelo, Rembrandt, and van Dyck. It will be well to name them "Additions to Daniel." The word has the same sense in Sirach 14:21; 39:3,7; 42:19; 48:25; 43:32. The Apocrypha . Both books are of first importance for understanding the historical setting for Hanukkah, the Jewish festival of rededication of the temple, which originates from the Maccabean Revolt. It is significant of the original character of the religion of Israel that no one has been able to point to a Hebrew word corresponding to esoteric (see below). Zahn (Gesch. It might therefore have been expected that the Old Testament canon of the Reformers would agree in extent with that of the Jews and not with that of the Greek and Latin Christians. Bodenstein of Carlstadt, usually called Carlstadt (died 1541), an early Reformer, though Luther's bitter personal opponent, was the first modern scholar to define "Apocrypha" quite clearly as writings excluded from the canon, whether or not the true authors of the books are known, in this, going back to Jerome's position. The adjective "apocryphal" came to have among Protestants more and more a disparaging sense. apocrypha. They don’t say “The word of the Lord came to me…” •Many of the Apocryphal books teach heresy, Meaning: spurious, writings that are not considered genuine and therefore not part of authentic Scripture; not approved. Exeg. (see The Century Bible, Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther, 294f). Our Lord and his apostles confirmed by their authority the ordinary Jewish canon, which was the same in all respects as we now have it. The Dead Sea Scrolls, as they came to be known, are assumed to have been the library of a sectarian community at Qumran. Perhaps if the Greek original of this book had been preserved the word "apocrypha" would have been found as an epithetic attached to the 70 books. Learn about Sar original meaning in the Bible using the Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon - King James Version. 1 Esdras; II. Many of them read into the canonical writings mystic meanings, and embodied those meanings in special books, these last becoming esoteric literature in themselves: and as in the case of apocalyptic writings, this esoteric literature was more revered than the Bible itself. The word apocrypha, like many other words, has undergone a major change in meaning throughout the centuries. On the other hand 3 and 4 Macc occur in the best manuscripts of the Septuagint, but the Vulgate, following Jerome's version, rejects both as do modern versions (English, etc.) apocryphal definition: 1. 2 Esdras; III. This refers to the books being kept away from common souls. The canonical Book of Daniel and many of the Psalms are of later date than Sirach and 1 Esdras, and there are cogent reasons for giving the canonical Esther a later date than any of the books named and perhaps than Judith as well (see, however, \DANIEL\; \ESTHER\). Fur. and Latin Vulgate versions of the Old Testament, and were appended to all the great translations made from them in the sixteenth century, but which have no claim to be regarded as in any sense parts of the inspired Word. The bringing together of the writings of the Apocrypha into an apart collection was due in a large measure to Jerome, who separated many of the apocryphal additions from their original context because he suspected their genuineness. Ecclesiasticus contains the teachings, in a form resembling that of the Book of Proverbs, of a second century b.c. If this view is the correct one it follows that the distinction of canonical and non-canonical books originated among the Jews, and that the Fathers in using the word apocrypha in this sense were simply copying the Jews substituting Greek words for the Hebrew equivalent. On the other hand Gregory of Nyssa and Epiphanius, both writing in the 4th century, use the word "apocrypha" in the old sense of apocalyptic, i.e. New Testament Apocrypha -- (A collection of legendary and spurious Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, and Epistles. First Esdras, for example, is primarily a retelling of the material found in 2 Chronicles 35:1-36:23, Ezra, and Nehemiah 7:6-8:12; Psalm 151 purports to be an additional psalm of David. This is not the original or the correct sense of the word, as will be shown, but it is that which it bears almost exclusively in modern speech. An English critical edition of the Apocrypha edited by R. H. Charles, with introductory notes, is now being printed at Oxford and will be very valuable. English Gematria, Hebrew Gematria and Jewish Gematria and Numerology Their relation to the canonical books of the Old Testament is discussed under CANON. One may find some analogy in the fact that among many Christians the official literature of the denomination to which they belong has more commanding force than the Bible itself. The New Testament Apocrypha, though less influential, has contributed to the traditions about Jesus and the travels and fate of the apostles, not to mention the development of the Christian concept of hell, most notably through the Inferno of Dante. J. H. Charlesworth, ed., The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha; J. K. Elliott, ed., The Apocryphal New Testament; E. Hennecke and W. Schneemelcher, eds., New Testament Apocrypha; B. M. Metzger, An Introduction to the Apocrypha; G. W. E. Nickelsburg, Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah; E. Schrer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ; H. F. D. Sparks, ed., The Apocryphal Old Testament; M. E. Stone, ed., Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period. It is known that the Reformers were careful students of the Bible, and that in Old Testament matters they were the pupils of Jewish scholars--there were no other competent teachers of Hebrew. Apocrypha. ), (3) "Spurious" Books (Athanasius, Nicephorus, etc. The Additions to Daniel have a less unified purpose. 1 Maccabee; XIV. {1} They are also known as "Deuterocanonical" writings, meaning "second canon," which signifies that they are important but not on par with the canon. The investigation which follows will show that when the word "Apocryphal" was first used in ecclesiastical writings it bore a sense virtually identical with "esoteric": so that "apocryphal writings" were such as appealed to an inner circle and could not be understood by outsiders. Assuming this, we have in this verse the first example of apokruphos in the sense "esoteric." See Table at Bible. Interpretation Translation ... ך"נתה לש םיינוציחה םירפסה ,םיפירקופא English-Hebrew dictionary. It divides sacred books into three classes: (1) The sixty canonical books. Numerous apocryphal gospels were produced by early Christians. Now it was felt that many if not most of the religious writings which came in the end of the 2nd century to be called "apocryphal" in a disparaging sense had their origin among heretical sects like the Gnostics, and that they had never commanded the approval of the great bulk of the churches. Greek: apo—“sprung from, descended from” + kryptein—“hidden; obscure, hard to understand,” thus of hidden or unknown authorship I n modern times, some have deceptively referred to these many books as “the Lost Books of the Bible.” It refers to the works which were written for an inner circle of people, sometimes a heretical sect. For monographs on the several books of the Apocrypha or discussing special points, see the special articles. Testament of Abraham, and Testaments of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are published, or translated in extract, by James and Barnes, "Texts and Studies," ii. Since the Protestant canon consists of but 57 books it will be seen that in this list books outside our canon are included. This movement among Greek Christians was greatly aided by Gnostic sects and the esoteric literature to which they gave rise. the Christian Old Testament), with one notable addition in the middle of chapter 4. (a) The verb ganaz of which the passive part. The Roman Catholic canon places the Prayer of Manasseh, 1 Esdras, and 2 Esdras in an appendix without implying canonicity. Use Translate.com to cover it all. There are also apocryphal letters (e.g.,3 Corinthians, Letter to the Laodiceans [cf. Introductory matter will be found in the various Bible Dictionaries under the word: see especially H. E. Ryle in DB (1893), Schurer (RE3), but especially in the valuable Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, by H. B. Swete (1900), Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible (five volumes) (C. F. Porter), and R. H. Charles (Enc Brit11). The Prayer of Azariah and the Three Young Men, placed after Daniel 3:23, is a prayer of trust in God offered up by Azariah (i.e., Abednego — Dan 1:7 ) and his companions (Shadrach and Meshach) in the fiery furnace. A brief statement as to the doctrine in early Greek philosophy will be found helpful at this point. Protestantism was in its very essence the religion of a book, and Protestants would be sure to see to it that the sacred volume on which they based their religion, including the reforms they introduced, contained no book but those which in their opinion had the strongest claims to be regarded as authoritative. The Greek adjective apokruphos, denotes strictly "hidden," "concealed," of a material object (Eurip. The term has several meanings, which are important to distinguish. In a similar way there grew up among the Jews side by side with the written law an oral law containing the teaching of the rabbis and regarded as more sacred and authoritative than the writings they profess to expound. Shalom Brothers and Sisters! The Vinaya Pitaka or "Basket of Discipline" contains the rules for entrance and the regulations to be observed after entrance. But it never has in classical Greek any other sense. late 14c., Apocrifa, in reference to the apocryphal books of the Bible, from Late Latin apocrypha (scripta), from neuter plural of apocryphus "secret, not approved for public reading," from Greek apokryphos "hidden; obscure, hard to understand," thus " (books) of unknown authorship" (especially those included in the Septuagint and Vulgate but not originally written in Hebrew and not counted as genuine by the … from Heb. One may answer this by a decisive negative as regards the Old Testament and the Talmud. The word Apocrypha comes from the Greek word, meaning “hidden” or “concealed”. Two books are associated with Jeremiah: the Letter of Jeremiah is an attack on idolatry, and Baruch, attributed to Jeremiah's secretary (cf. Many of them were attributed to major Old Testament figures; they are called the Pseudepigrapha. 1 Esdras. The 12 Testaments of the Patriarchs (part of the Dead Sea Scrolls Hebrew Canon) are also included and translated from their original Hebrew text. First, they are filled with supernatural deeds: miracles abound, especially the raising of the dead, and even a talking lion gets baptized. For usage information, please read the Baker Book House Copyright Statement. ; its focus is on God's faithfulness to his people. But the evidence is against so early a use of the term in this--soon to be its prevailing--sense. (see below, § III. Apocrypha. The next step in the history of the word "apocrypha" is that by which it came to denote religious books inferior in authority and worth to the Scriptures of the Old Testament and New Testament. The two classes of doctrines and rites--they were mainly the latter--were designated respectively "exoteric" and "esoteric." Salem Media Group. The fact that the Apocrypha is absent from the Hebrew canon must have had some influence on the minds of the Reformers. At an early date they were translated into Greek and in this form came to be used by Christians as early as the end of the first century a.d. Apocrypha definition, a group of 14 books, not considered canonical, included in the Septuagint and the Vulgate as part of the Old Testament, but usually omitted from Protestant editions of the Bible. esoteric. 3. apocrypha Writings or statements of questionable authorship or authenticity. The gospel was preached in its first days to the poor and ignorant, and the reading and studying of the sacred Scriptures have been urged by the churches (with some exceptions) upon the public at large. (2) Books excluded from the 60, yet of superior authority to those mentioned as apocryphal in the next class. They are good and worth reading. Apocrypha definition: the 14 books included as an appendix to the Old Testament in the Septuagint and the... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples What are the Apocrypha? In its broadest translation, II, iii), where much literature is specified. Apocrypha, (from Greek apokryptein, “to hide away”), in biblical literature, works outside an accepted canon of scripture. Then it came to signify what is obscure, recondite, hard to understand (Xen. The western church did not accept Jerome's definition of apocrypha, but retained the word in its original meaning, though great confusion prevailed. Some Christian churches include some or all of the same texts within the body of their version of the Old Testament. Meaning: spurious, writings that are not considered genuine and therefore not part of authentic Scripture; not approved. 1 Esdras is virtually identical to Ezra in the Hebrew bible (i.e. Among the Buddhists the Samga forms a close society open originally to monks or bhikhus admitted only after a most rigid examination; but in later years nuns (bhikshunis) also have been allowed admission, though in their case too after careful testing. To him, as later to Jerome (died 420), "canonical" and "apocryphal" were antithetic terms. Dr. Edgar Hennecke has edited a similar work on the New Testament Apocrypha. They are not once quoted by the New Testament writers, who frequently quote from the LXX. Yet Augustine (died 430; De Civitale Dei, XV, 23) explained the "apocrypha" as denoting obscurity of origin or authorship, and this sense of the word became the prevailing one in the West. Ed. The following books were however written in Hebrew: Tobit, Judith, Sirach, Baruch (part probably in Greek), and 1 Maccabees. This preface to the Scriptures may serve as a "helmeted" introduction to all the books which we turn from Hebrew into Latin, so that we may be assured that what is not found in our list must be placed amongst the Apocryphal writings. Lucian (died 312; see Vit. Bible King James Version with Apocrypha Book of Enoch, Jasher and Jubilees are not in Apocrypha so they are seperated in the Table of Contents and in the Search. We'll send you an email with steps on how to reset your password. YHWH/YHVH AND AHAYAH (THE ILLUMINATI KNOWS THAT THE NAME OF THE MOST HIGH IS “AHAYAH”) YHWH/YHVH/IHVH/JHVH - ORIGIN (V = U), (UV = W), (I = J), (J SUBSTITUTE for Y), the name YHWH/JHVH was injected into the text of the Old Testament by the Pharisees and others who practiced Babylonian… When devotees of Greek philosophy accepted the Christian faith it was natural for them to look at the new religion through the medium of the old philosophy. First Maccabees, the longest and most detailed account, is an especially important historical source for the revolt. Irenaeus (died 202) in opposition to Clement of Alexandria denies that esoteric writings have any claims to credence or even respect, and he uses the Greek word for "apocryphal" to describe all Jewish and Christian canons. Also they are not in Reading Plan and Daily Verses. Tobias/Tobit Roman Catholic Church (Meaning that they consider them parts of the canon of scripture.) The author of 2 Esdras asks questions, like Job, in order to understanding the meaning of suffering. From the Dead Sea Scrolls we know that Psalm 151, surviving in Greek, is actually a combination of two separate Psalms in Hebrew (sometimes called 151a and 151b). Unlike the Old Testament Apocrypha, the New Testament Apocrypha have never been viewed as canonical by any of the major branches of Christianity, nor is there any reason to believe that the traditions they record have any historical validity. The Roman Catholic Church does not term this set of books as the Apocrypha but rather …