[21] The ill-advised threat gave Mehmed a casus belli and late in 1451, preparations were already underway for a new Ottoman siege of Constantinople. [110] Theodore's descendants and relatives lived on in Venice and its territories long after his death. [46] Thus, the male line of the imperial branch of the House of Palaiologos probably went extinct at some point in the early 16th century. While the genealogies of many supposedly surviving branches of the imperial dynasty can easily be dismissed as fantasy, others, such as the genealogy of a lineage from Pesaro which survived until at least the late 17th century, are more plausible. John VI Kantakouzenos, Cantacuzenus, or Cantacuzene was a Greek nobleman, statesman, and general. Andronikos III secured the support of a significant number of the aristocracy and a period of civil war, not ended until 1328, ensued. [5], Michael Palaiologos, born in 1223, was the son of Andronikos Palaiologos, megas domestikos in the Empire of Nicaea. On the death of the emperor in 1341, John Kantakouzenos was left as the designated regent, and guardian of John's son John V Palaiologos, who was nine years old. [69], Theodore's descendants, the Palaeologus-Montferrat family, ruled at Montferrat until the 16th century, though they were sometimes given Greek names, such as Theodore and Sophia,[70] most of the Palaiologan Marquises of Montferrat paid little attention to affairs in the eastern Mediterranean. John VII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος , Iōannēs Z' Palaiologos; 1370 – 22 September 1408) was Byzantine Emperor for five months in 1390. Variant of DOC 5.1:184, table 24, siglon no. [1], By the 15th century, the Byzantine emperors had lost any real power, with the Ottoman sultans increasingly becoming the real regulators of political matters within the empire. [31] Though Pius II was eager to go through with the idea, and Thomas rode around Italy in the hopes of drumming up support for the venture,[32] no crusade materialized this time either. Andronikos died in 1385 and his son, John VII Palaiologos briefly managed to usurp the throne in 1390. [1], In 1373, John V's son and heir Andronikos IV Palaiologos rebelled against his father in an attempt to seize the throne, instigating a fourth series of Palaiologan civil wars. Andreas Palaeologus in Rome, 1465-1502", "El fin de Constantinopla y las supuestas herencias nobiliarias bizantinas", "Su alcune discendenze moderne dei Paleologi di Bisanzio", "The Palaiologos Family After 1453: The Destiny of an Imperial Family", Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologenzeit, "Les premiers Paléologues. [1], Though most of the Palaiologan era was defined by decline and war, it was also an age of cultural flourishing, beginning in the late 13th century. In 1320, Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos attempted to disinherit his grandson Andronikos III Palaiologos, despite the death of Andronikos II's son, heir and co-emperor Michael IX Palaiologos (Andronikos III's father). [53] The Tocco family went extinct in 1884, with the title of Prince of Achaea (among others) being inherited by Carlo Capece Galeota, their closest relative. [29], Thomas had four children; Helena, Zoe, Andreas and Manuel. [119] A 1489 census of San Mauro Cilento records no inhabitants with Byzantine surnames, though records a widow and daughter of "Quondam Princi de Rogerio Greco", someone subsequent censuses make clear left no further descendants. [25] The brothers were divided in their policies. He succeeded his father as Byzantine Emperor in 1341, at age nine. [47], Although the imperial dynasty went extinct in the male line, descendants of the Palaiologan emperors survived for centuries through the lineages of various daughters. [27][28] Mehmed was victorious and annexed the region directly into the Ottoman Empire, ending Palaiologan rule in Greece. The repeated attempts by the emperors to reunite the Greek Orthodox Church with the Roman Catholic Church, and thus place the Byzantine church in submission under the Papacy, was viewed as heresy and treason. [37] Whether he had any children is uncertain. Παλαιολόγοι, female version Palaiologina; Greek: Παλαιολογίνα), also found in English-language literature as Palaeologus or Palaeologue, was a Byzantine Greek family that rose to nobility and produced the last and longest-ruling dynasty of the Byzantine Empire. [43] Manuel's son Andreas converted to Islam and might have served as an Ottoman court official. [79] Venice had first become interested in hiring stratioti after witnessing the prowess of Greek and Albanian soldiers in the First Ottoman–Venetian War of 1463–1479. 1481–1512). In 1495, Theodore partook in a siege of Novara and also partook in later battles in Savona and Cephalonia. [16], Through most of John VIII's reign, Constantine and Thomas ruled as Despots of the Morea, with Demetrios governing a stretch of land in Thrace. They had at least six children -- four sons and at least two daughters.Their known children include: 1. [90] The earliest record of John's existence other than Theodore's tombstone are the writings of the Greek scholar Leo Allatius, who wrote in 1648, too late for his works to be considered independent evidence. [121][122] This group stood in close contact with two powerful viziers, Mesih Pasha and Hass Murad Pasha, both of whom were reportedly nephews to Constantine XI Palaiologos and had been forced to covert to Islam after Constantinople's fall,[123] as well as with other converted scions of Byzantine and Balkan aristocratic families like Mahmud Pasha Angelović, forming what the Ottomanist Halil İnalcık termed a "Greek faction" at the court of Mehmed II. [18] After John VIII's death in June 1448, the candidates for the throne were brothers Constantine, Demetrios and Thomas. [75] A modern lineage, called the Paleologo-Oriundi, descends from Flaminio, an illegitimate son of John George. [44] He is last attested in the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566)[45] and is not believed to have had children of his own. [87][88] Some might be genuine descendants of the imperial family as several of the imperial Palaiologoi are recorded as having had illegitimate children; for instance, Theodore II, Despot of the Morea, is known to have had several illegitimate children. Constantine XI died fighting in its defense. In 1472, according to Bessarion's plans, Zoe (whose name was later changed to Sophia) was married to Duke Ivan III of Moscow. Andronikos III died aged 44 in 1341, and was succeeded by his son, John V Palaiologos. John V was initially victorious, imprisoning and disinheriting Andronikos IV and appointing a younger son, Manuel II Palaiologos, as his successor instead. Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος, "Iōannēs V Palaiologos"), (18 June, 1332 – February 16, 1391) was the son of Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos and Anna of Savoy. Omissions? [23] Constantine also sent desperate pleas for aid to Western Europe, though little help ever arrived. Murad II's young son and successor, Mehmed II, who became sultan in 1451, was obsessed with the idea of conquering Constantinople. [19], Constantine XI's reign would prove to be brief. [102] Theodore left Barbados to work as a privateer, serving aboard a ship called Charles II, and died at A Coruña, Spain in 1693. [62] Since Yolande was second-in-line to the throne of the March of Montferrat, the marriage had the unexpected result of creating the possibility that a Byzantine prince might inherit Montferrat. Étude généalogique et prosopographique", "SERRA DI CASSANO, Giuseppe in "Dizionario Biografico, Spain (Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Palaiologos&oldid=997274929, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 December 2020, at 19:51. [58], When the Byzantines reconquered Constantinople in 1261 under Michael VIII Palaiologos, the Papacy suffered a loss of prestige and endured severe damage to its spiritual authority. [24], In the aftermath of Constantinople's fall, one of the most pressing threats to the new Ottoman regime was the possibility that one of Constantine XI's relatives would secure support and return to reclaim the empire. John VII Palaiologos (or Palaeologus) (Greek: Ιωάννης Ζ’ Παλαιολόγος Iōannēs VII Palaiologos) (1370 – 22 September 1408) was Byzantine Emperor for five months in 1390. A 1455 document in which Cardinal Isidoro Ruteno grants indulgences to those who donate to a church in San Mauro Cilento mentions a "Ruggerio" as the son of "Tommaso Paleologo". His maternal grandparents were Count Amadeus V of Savoy and his second wife Maria of Brabant. John VII Palaiologos was the son of Emperor Andronikos IV Palaiologos and Keratsa of Bulgaria, a daughter of Emperor Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria and Theodora of Wallachia. [87] Because people with the name live throughout the world and might not even be related in the first place, creating an all-encompassing modern Palaiologos genealogy is next to impossible. This group included names like "Palologoz of Kassandros" and "Manuel Palologoz". When Andronicus III died in 1341, Cantacuzenus asserted his claim as regent for the young John V, but when he (Cantacuzenus) left Constantinople to battle the Serbs in Thrace, his opponents—led by John V’s mother, Anna of Savoy—declared him a traitor and imprisoned his supporters. Some, such as Theophilos Palaiologos, lost their lives in the battle, whereas others were taken prisoner and executed. John V Palaiologos (or Palaeologus) (Greek: Ίωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs V Palaiologos) (18 June 1332 – 16 February 1391) was a Byzantine emperor, who succeeded his father in 1341, at age nine. [120] The presence of double-headed eagle symbols in the Spirito Santo church has been used as an argument in the past, but this symbol was not unique to the Palaiologoi, being used as a symbol by other families as well (both Byzantine and Western). [91] As such, it is possible that Allatius had access to earlier documents, now lost, which would have proven the legitimacy of the Pesaro line. One of the earliest references to Palaiologoi in Venice is a 1479 Senate decision concerning Theodore Palaiologos, who had recently proven himself in a campaign in Friuli. It is more likely that they originated significantly later in Anatolia since the earliest known member of the family, possibly its founder, Nikephoros Palaiologos, served as a commander there in the second half of the 11th century. In 1478, Theodore travelled to Venice with his father, Paul, and became a stratiote. Some even believed that Constantine XI would return to rescue them, that he wasn't actually dead but merely asleep, awaiting a call from the heavens to return and restore Christian control over Constantinople. In the eyes of the Orthodox church, Constantine's death sanctified him and he died a hero. Various lineages of Palaialogoi, whose relation to the medieval Palaiologoi and each other are unclear, survived into the modern period and thousands of people, particularly in Greece, still have the last name Palaiologos, or variants thereof, today. [95] What happened to Scipione is not known, but Leonidas was executed. They are recorded numerous times as donors to monasteries, and intermarried several times with the Komnenos dynasty during its rule over the Byzantine Empire (1081–1185). [13] Bayezid's siege lasted for more than a decade, with Western aid through the Crusade of Nicopolis (1396) failing to stop the sultan. [1], The Palaiologoi ruled Byzantium at its weakest point in history, and the empire underwent significant economical and political decline. He married his daughter Helen to the young emperor to seal the agreement. That a Byzantine prince, born in the purple, would be sent to live among, and rule over, Latin barbarians,[64] was bad enough but there were also fears that he and his descendants might become 'Latinized'[65] and that the Italians, as a result of the Montferrat inheritance, could launch an invasion in the future in hopes of placing a Catholic Palaiologos on the Byzantine throne. See Article History. John VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος, romanized: Iōannēs Palaiologos; 18 December 1392 – 31 October 1448) was the penultimate Byzantine Emperor, ruling from 1425 to 1448. [89] With the sole exception of Thomas's purported son John, the existence of the rest of Theodore's immediate ancestors can be verified through records at Pesaro. [86] These modern Palaiologoi cannot be confidently proven to descend from the imperial dynasty, or the medieval family which produced it. Manouel II Palaiologos adalah anak kedua dari Kaisar John V Palaiologos (1341–1376, 1379–1390, 1390–1391) dan (istrinya) Helena Kantakouzena. Emperors are indicated with bold text and women are indicated with italics. Just a few days after Theodore's death, Michael led a coup against the bureaucrat George Mouzalon,[9] who had been appointed regent by Theodore II. Through the preceding century or so of Palaiologan marriages to other imperial families, his ancestry could be traced back to the three most recent dynasties that had ruled the empire before the Fourth Crusade (Doukas, Komnenos and Angelos). [107], The Venetian Palaiologoi were not related to the imperial family, but they might have been distant cousins. [60], Michael VIII succeeded in achieving a union of the Catholic and Orthodox churches at the Second Council of Lyons in 1274, legitimizing him and his successors as rulers of Constantinople in the eyes of the West. [129] As Ottoman rule continued, many Greeks dreamed of a day when a new emperor would once more rule a sizeable Greek domain. Basilikon of John V Palaiologos (1341-1391) Basilikon of John VI Kantakouzenos (1347-1354) Assarion of John V Palaiologos and Anna of Savoy (1341-1391) Stavraton of Andronikos IV Palaiologos (1376-1379) Half-stavraton of John VII Palaiologos (1390) Half-stavraton of Manuel II Palaiologos (1391-1425) A cadet branch in Italy, the Palaeologus-Montferrat, ruled the March of Montferrat until 1536 and died out in 1566. 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